Article | Culture Unbound: Journal of Current Cultural Research | Adventurers, Flâneurs, and Agitators: Travel Stories as Means for Marking and Transgressing Boundaries in 19<sup>th</sup> and Early 20<sup>th</sup> Century Finland

Title:
Adventurers, Flâneurs, and Agitators: Travel Stories as Means for Marking and Transgressing Boundaries in 19th and Early 20th Century Finland
Author:
Kirsti Salmi-Niklander: Department of Philosophy, History, Culture and Art Studies, University of Helsinki, Finland
DOI:
10.3384/cu.2000.1525.14611145
Read article:
Full article (pdf)
Year:
2014
Volume:
6
Theme:

Part 2: Border crossers and crossovers in travel narratives

Pages:
1145-1164
No. of pages:
20
Publication type:
Introduction
Published:
2014-12-15


The article focuses on border crossings in travel stories, which were published in hand-written newspapers in 19th- and early 20th-century Finland. These papers were a popular tradition in student organizations and popular movements. Border crossings appear in travel stories in three different representations. Firstly, border crossings are repeated motifs in travel stories, both as challenging events and as small gestures and encounters. Travel stories demarcate boundaries, but they also provide a means for transgressing them. Secondly, hand-written newspapers as a literary practice highlight borders between oral and written communication. They were produced as one single manuscript copy, and published by being read out aloud in social events. Thirdly, the authors of hand-written newspapers were placed on the border of different positions in society such as class, gender and age. My analysis is based on the methodological discussion of small stories and personal experience narratives; travel stories can be defined as “local event narratives”. I have outlined four basic models for travel stories which emerge from hand-written newspapers: the great mission story, the grand tour story, the flâneur story and the retreat story. The analysis of travel stories is presented through four different case studies with a time range from the 1850s to the 1920s: these materials have been produced in two provincial student fraternities (osakunta), in the temperance society “Star” in Helsinki in the 1890s, and in the Social Democratic Youth Club in the small industrial town of Karkkila in the 1910s and the 1920s. Many parallel features can be observed in travel stories, even though the social background and ideology of the authors are quite different. Time and space are important aspects in travel stories, and they often demarcate boundaries of class and gender.

Keywords: Travel stories; hand-written newspapers; border crossings; class; gender; oral-literary tradition; narration

Volume 6, Theme:

Part 2: Border crossers and crossovers in travel narratives

, Article 63, 2014
Author:
Kirsti Salmi-Niklander
Title:
Adventurers, Flâneurs, and Agitators: Travel Stories as Means for Marking and Transgressing Boundaries in 19th and Early 20th Century Finland:
DOI:
10.3384/cu.2000.1525.14611145
References:

Archival materials

National Library, Manuscript Department
  • Western Finnish fraternity (Länsisuomalainen osakunta)
    Hand-written newpaper Kaukomieli
  • Savo-Karelian fraternity (Savokarjalainen osakunta)
    Hand-written newspaper Savo-Karjalainen
  • Temperance society “Star” (Tähti)
    Hand-written newspaper Kehitys
  • Labour Archives

  • Högfors social democratic youth club (Högforsin sos.dem. nuoriso-osasto)
    Hand-written newspaper Valistaja
  • Literature

  • Bamberg, Michael (2006): “Stories: Big and Small: Why do we Care?”, Narrative Inquiry, 16:1, 139–147. DOI: 10.1075/ni.16.1.18bam
  • Bamberg, Michael & Alexandra Georgakopoulou (2008): “Small Stories as a New Perspective in Narrative and Identity Analysis”, Text & Talk, 28–3, 377–396.
  • Benjamin, Walter (1999): The Arcades Project, Cambridge & London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
  • Bourguet, Marie-Noëlle (2012): “A Portable World: the Notebooks of European Travellers (Eighteenth to Nineteenth Centuries)”, Tim Youngs & Peter Forsdick (eds): Travel Writing. Volume I, London & New York: Routledge, 143–174. (First published in Intellectual History Review 20:3, 2010, 377–400.
  • Buzard, James (2002): “The Grand Tour and After”, Peter Hulme & Tim Youngs (eds): The Cambridge Companion to Travel Writing, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 37–54.
  • Campbell, Joseph (1956): The Hero with Thousand Faces, New York: Meridian Books.
  • Felski, Rita (1995): The Gender of Modernity, Cambridge & London: Harvard University Press.
  • Fulford, Tim & Debbie Lee (2012): “Mental Traveler. Joseph Banks, Mungo Park, and the Romantic imagination”, Tim Youngs & Charles Forsdick (eds): Travel Writing. Volume II: The Contexts of Travel, London & New York: Routledge, 407–432. Originally published in: Nineteenth-Century Contexts, 24:2, 2002, 117–137.
  • Hassam, Andrew (2012): ”Passanger Sketches and Social Identity”, Tim Youngs & Peter Forsdick (eds): Travel Writing. Volume III, London & New York: Routledge, 39–65. Originally published in: A. Hassam (1994): Sailing to Australia. Shipboard Diaries by Nineteenth-century British Emigrants, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 107–134.
  • Karpio, Vihtori (1938): Raittiuden Ystävät 1883–1933, Jyväskylä & Helsinki: K. J. Gummerus.
  • Kauranen, Kaisa (2009): Työtä ja rakkautta. Kansanmiesten päiväkirjoja 1834–1937, Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura.
  • Kemppainen, Ilona, Kirsti Salmi-Niklander & Saara Tuomaala (2011): ”Modernin nuoruuden kirjalliset maailmat”, Kemppainen, Ilona & al. (eds): Kirjoitettu nuoruus. Aikalaistulkintoja 1900–luvun alkupuolen nuoruudesta, Helsinki: Nuorisotutkimusseura, 6–18.
  • Klinge, Matti (1967): Ylioppilaskunnan historia. Toinen osa 1853–1871, Porvoo: WSOY.
  • Kuismin, Anna (2012): “Building the Nation, Lighting the Torch: Excursions into the Writings of the Common People in Nineteenth-Century Finland”, Journal of Finnish Studies, 16:1, 5–24.
  • Lappalainen, Päivi (2000): Koti, kansa ja maailman tahraava lika. Näkökulmia 1880- ja 1890-luvun kirjallisuuteen, Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura.
  • Leed, Eric J. (1991): The Mind of the Traveler from Gilgamesh to Global Tourism, USA: Basic Books.
  • MacLulich, T.D. (1979): “Canadian Exploration as Literature”, Canadian Literature, 81, 72–89.
  • Melberg, Arne (2005): Resa och skriva: en guide till den moderna reselitteraturen, Göteborg: Daidalos.
  • Niemi, A.R. (1904): Runonkerääjiemme matkakertomuksia 1830-luvulta 1880-luvulle, SKST 109, Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura.
  • Nordlund, Taru (2013): Kirjeet. Keskustelua yli ajan ja paikan, Laitinen, Lea & Mikkola, Kati (eds): Kynällä kyntäjät. Kansan kirjallistuminen 1800-luvun Suomessa, Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 107–138.
  • Numminen, Jaakko (1961): Suomen nuorisoseuraliikkeen historia I. Vuodet 1881–1905, Keuruu: Otava.
  • Ollila, Anne (2000): Aika ja elämä 1800-luvun lopussa, Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura.
  • Rimmon-Kenan, Shlomith (1983): Narrative Fiction. Contemporary Poetics, London: Methuen. DOI: 10.4324/9780203426111
  • Ruutu, Martti (1939): Savokarjalaisen osakunnan historia II, Porvoo & Helsinki: WSOY.
  • Salmi-Niklander, Kirsti (2004): Itsekasvatusta ja kapinaa. Tutkimus Karkkilan työläisnuorten kirjoittavasta keskusteluyhteisöstä 1910- ja 1920-luvuilla, Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura.
  • Salmi-Niklander, Kirsti (2005): ”Käsin kirjoitettua. 1800-luvun lopun nuoret naiset historian opiskelijoina ja tulkitsijoina”, Elina Katainen, Tiina Kinnunen, Eva Packalén & Saara Tuomaala (eds): Oma pöytä. Naiset historian kirjoittajina Suomessa 1800- ja 1900-luvulla, Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society, 75–97. D
  • Salmi-Niklander, Kirsti (2006): ”Tapahtuma, kokemus ja kerronta”, Outi Fingerroos et al. (eds) Muistitietotutkimus – Metodologisia kysymyksiä, Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society, 199–220.
  • Salmi-Niklander, Kirsti (2007): ”Bitter Memories and Burst Soap Bubbles. Irony, Parody and Satire in the Oral-Literary Tradition of Finnish Working-Class Youth at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century”, Humour and Social Protest. International Review of Social History, 52, 189–207. DOI: 10.1017/S0020859007003197
  • Salmi-Niklander, Kirsti (2009): ”Pienet kertomukset, suuret merkitykset. Kerronta, identiteetti ja vuorovaikutus käsinkirjoitetuissa lehdissä”, Kasvatus & Aika, 1:3, 7–24: http://www.kasvatus-ja-aika.fi/site/?lan=1&page_id=172 (accessed 28 November 2014).
  • Salmi-Niklander, Kirsti (2013): ”Monologic, Dialogic, Collective. Modes of Writing in Hand-written Newspapers”, Anna Kuismin & Matthew Driscoll (eds): White Field, Black Seeds. Nordic Literacy Practices in the Long Nineteenth Century, Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society, 76–88.
  • Stahl, Sandra Dolby (1989): Literary Folkloristics and the Personal Narrative, Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  • Street, Brian V. (1993): ”Introduction. New Literacy Studies”, Brian V. Streed (ed): Cross-cultural Approaches to Literacy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1-21.
  • Varpio, Yrjö (1997): Matkalla moderniin Suomeen. 1800-luvun suomalainen matkakirjallisuus, Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura.
  • Viljoen, Hein (2013): “Introduction”, Hein Viljoen (ed.): Crossing Borders, Dissolving Boundaries, Amsterdam & New York: Rodopi, xix–xlvii.
  • Wolff, Janet (1990): Feminine Sentences: Essays on Women and Culture,Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Youngs, Tim & Charles Forsdick (eds) (2012): Travel Writing. Volume III, London & New York: Routledge.
  • Volume 6, Theme::

    Part 2: Border crossers and crossovers in travel narratives

    , Article 63, 2014
    Author:
    Kirsti Salmi-Niklander
    Title:
    Adventurers, Flâneurs, and Agitators: Travel Stories as Means for Marking and Transgressing Boundaries in 19th and Early 20th Century Finland:
    DOI:
    10.3384/cu.2000.1525.14611145
    Note: the following are taken directly from CrossRef
    Citations:
    No citations available at the moment
     

    Export in BibTex, RIS or text