International Film Festivals: For the Benefit of Whom?
Jesper Strandgaard Pedersen: Creative Industries Research Centre, CBS, Denmark Carmelo Mazza: Business School in Madrid, Spain
Read article:
Full article (pdf)
Theme: Creativity Unbound – Policies, Government and the Creative Industries
No. of pages:
Publication type:

Film festivals have become a widespread phenomenon over the last fifty years and are leading events establishing the reputation of film professionals and constitute a well-established field in itself. Studying the cities of Copenhagen and Rome the authors are asking why the public authorities of these cities establish their own film festivals in an lready saturated field of international film festivals? The focus is on the strategic responses and work made by two late adopters of film festivals – Copenhagen and Rome and their international film festivals, CIFF and ’Festa del Cinema di Roma’ (FCR). The comparative case study is based on qualitative data and methods. It investigates how the two festivals establish, legitimate and position themselves within the existing, institutionalised field of international film festivals. Combining the classical work on early and late adopters in the diffusion of ideas and practices (Tolbert & Zucker 1983) with forms of legitimacy (Suchman 1995) and institutional work (Lawrence & Suddaby 2006), it is demonstrated how different and sometimes conflicting demands from various stakeholders, like public authorities and the film industry, have shaped the frames used to position and legitimize the film festivals.

Keywords: Film festivals; late adopters; legitimacy; institutional work

Volume 3, Theme: Theme: Creativity Unbound – Policies, Government and the Creative Industries, Article 12, 2011

Jesper Strandgaard Pedersen, Carmelo Mazza
International Film Festivals: For the Benefit of Whom?
  • Alvarez, Jose L., Carmelo Mazza, Jesper Strandgaard Pedersen & Silviya Svejenova (2005): “Shielding Idiosyncrasy from Isomorphic Pressures: Towards Optimal Distinctiveness in European Filmmaking”, Organization, 12, 863–888. [Read this article]
  • Anand, Narasimhan & Mary R. Watson (2004): “Tournament Rituals in the Evolution of Fields: The Case of the Grammy Awards”, Academy of Management Journal, 47, 59–80. [Read this article]
  • Bjerre, Michael (2004): “Festival omfavner kritiker”,[Festival embraces critic]. Berlingske Tidende, 28 January 2004, 4.
  • Blum, Daniel (1953): A Pictorial History of the Silent Screen, London: Spring Books, Westbook House.
  • Boxenbaum, Eva & Jesper Strandgaard Pedersen (2009): “Scandinavian Institutionalism – a Case of Institutional Work”. Thomas B. Lawrence, Roy Suddaby, & Bernard Leca, (eds), Institutional Work: Actors and Agency in Institutional Studies of Organizations (‘the work’), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 178–204.
  • Boxenbaum, Eva, and Julie Battilana (2005): “Importation as Innovation: Transposing Managerial Practices Across Fields”. Strategic Organization, 3:4, 355–383. [Read this article]
  • Brewer, Marilynn B. (1991): “The Social Self: On Being the Same and Different at the Same Time”, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17:5, 475–482. [Read this article]
  • Caves, Richard E. (2000): Creative Industries: Contracts between Art and Commerce. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Cousins, Mark (2004): The Story of Film. Pavilion Books. London.
  • Dabelsteen, Per (2002): “Ballade omfilmfestival”, [Trouble concerning film festival]. Politiken,17 December 2002, 3.
  • Dayan, Daniel (2000): “Looking for Sundance. The Social Construction of a Film Festival”, IbBondebjerg (ed.): Moving Images, Culture and the Mind, University of Luton Press.
  • Czarniawska, Barbara, Guje Sevòn, Steve R. Clegg& Ralph E. Stablein (eds) (2005): Global Ideas: How Ideas, Objects and Practices Travels in the Global Economy. Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School Press.
  • Davis, Gerald, Kristina A. Diekmann& Catherine H. Tinsley (1994): “The Decline and Fall of the Conglomerate Firm in the 1980s: the De-institutionalization of an Organizational Form”. American Sociological Review, 59: 547–570. [Read this article]
  • De Valck, Marijke. (2006): Film Festivals: History and Theory of a European Phenomenon That Became a Global Network.Unpublished PhD. Dissertation.University of Amsterdam.
  • DiMaggio, Paul (1987): “Classification in Art”. American Sociological Review, 52 (4): 440–455. [Read this article]
  • DiMaggio, Paul (1988): “Interest and Agency in Institutional Theory”. Lynne G. Zucker (ed.): Institutional Patterns and Organizations; Culture and Environment, 3-21, Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
  • DiMaggio, Paul J. & Walther W. Powell (1983): “The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields”, American Sociological Review, 48, 147–160. [Read this article]
  • DiMaggio, Paul J. & Walther W. Powell (1991): “Introduction”, Walther W. Powell & Paul J. DiMaggio (eds): The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis.Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1-38.
  • Dowling, John & Jeffrey Pfeffer (1975): “Organizational Legitimacy: Social Values and Organizational Behavior”. Pacific Sociological Review, 18, 122–136.
  • Eising, Jesper (2004): “Filmfestivalønsker at samarbejde”, [Film festival wants to cooperate]. BerlingskeTidende, 1 November: 5.
  • Eising, Jesper (2005a): “To danskefilmfestivalerindgårnytsamarbejde”, [Two Danish film festivals form new cooperation]. BerlingskeTidende, 28 October2005, 4.
  • Eising, Jesper (2005b): “Filmfestivalflytter”, [Film festival moves]. BerlingskeTidende, 30 November 2005, 4.
  • Enggaard, Michael (2005): “FilmopkøbereinviterettilDanmark i august”, [Film buyers invited to Denmark in August]. Jyllands-Posten 11 July 2005, 10.
  • Elsaesser, Thomas (2005): European Cinema – Face to Face with Hollywood. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
  • Ezra, Elisabeth (ed.) (2004): European Cinema. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • FIAPF (2008): Accredited Festivals Directory: www.fiapf.org,
  • Fligstein, Neil (1997): “Social Skill and Institutional Theory”, American Behavioral Scientist, 40: 397–405.
  • Giese, Ditte (2002): “Splidomnyfilmfestival”, [Disagreement on new film festival]. EkstraBladet, 17 December: 23.
  • Goodrick, Elisabeth & Gerald R. Salancik (1996): “Organizational Discretion in Responding to Institutional Practices: Hospitals and Cesarean Births”, Administrative Science Quarterly, 41: 1–28. [Read this article]
  • Florida, Richard (2002):The Rise of The Creative Class, Basic Books.
  • Green, Sandy E. (2004): “A Rhetorical Theory of Diffusion”. Academy of Management Review, 29, 653–669.
  • Greenwood, Royston, Roy Suddaby & C. Richard Hinings (2002): “Theorizing Change: the Role of Professional Associations in the Transformation of Institutionalized Fields”, Academy of Management Journal, 45, 58–80. [Read this article]
  • Greenwood, Royston, Christine Oliver, Kerstin Sahlin & Roy Suddaby (2008): “Introduction”, Royston Greenwood, Christine Oliver, Kerstin Sahlin & Roy Suddaby (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Organizational Institutionalism. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1–46.
  • Griffith, Richard & Arthur Mayer (1957): The Movies, London: Spring Books
  • Harbord, Janet (2002): Film Cultures, London: Sage Publications.
  • Hjort, Anders (2002): “Har du hørt, at....”, [Did you hear that ... ], Jyllands-Posten 19 December 2002, 8.
  • Hobsbawn, Eric & Terence Ranger (eds) (1983): The Invention of Tradition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Jacobsen, Wolfgang (2000): 50 Years International Filmfestspiele Berlin, Filmmuseum Berlin-Deutsche Kinematek and Nicolaische Verlagsbuchhandlung Beuermann GmbH, Berlin.
  • Jensen, Jacob W. (2003): “Flyt så den festival”, [Now move that festival], B.T. 21 August: 26.
  • Jepperson, Ronald L. (1991): “Institutions, Institutional Effects, and Institutionalism”, Walther W. Powell & Paul J. DiMaggio (eds), The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis, Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 143–163.
  • Lampel, Joseph & Alan D. Meyer (2008): “Guest Editors’ Introduction. Field Configuring Events as Structuring Mechanisms: How Conferences, Ceremonies, and Trade Shows Constitute New Technologies, Industries, and Markets”, Journal of Management Studies, 45:6, 1025–1035. [Read this article]
  • Lange, Anders (2003a): “Filmfestival i pengenød”, [Film festival in need of money], Jyllands-Posten 30 June 2003, 12.
  • Lange, Anders (2003b): “Kort snor til filmfestival”, [Short leash on film festival], Jyllands-Posten, 27 September, 2003, 13.  
  • Lawrence, Thomas B. (1999): “Institutional Strategy”. Journal of Management, 25, 161-188. [Read this article]
  • Lawrence, Thomas B. & Roy Suddaby (2006): “Institutions and Institutional Work”. Stewart R. Clegg, Cynthia Hardy, Thomas B. Lawrence & Walther R. Nord (eds) Handbook of Organization Studies [2. Ed]. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 215–254.
  • Maguire, Steve, Cynthia Hardy & Thomas B. Lawrence (2004): “Institutional Entrepreneurship in Emerging Fields: HIV/AIDS Treatment Advocacy in Canada”, Academy of Management Journal, 47, 657–679. [Read this article]
  • Mazdon, Lucy (2007): “Transnational ‘French’ Cinema: The Cannes Film Festival”. Modern and Contemporary France, 15:1, 9–20. [Read this article]
  • Mazza, Carmelo, Kerstin Sahlin-Andersson & Jesper Strandgaard Pedersen (2005): “European Constructions of an American Model”,Journal of Management Learning 36:4 471–491.
  • Meyer, John W., and Brian Rowan (1977): “Institutionalized organizations: Formal structure as myth and ceremony”, American Journal of Sociology, 83, 340–363. [Read this article]
  • Meyer, Marshall M. & Lynne G. Zucker (1988): Permanently Failing Organizations, Huntington Park, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Mezias, Stephen, Jesper Strandgaard Pedersen, Ji-Hyun Kim, SilviyaSvejenova& Carmelo Mazza (2011): “Transforming Film Product Identities: The Status Effects of European Premier Film Festivals, 1996-2005”, BrianMoeran& Jesper Strandgaard Pedersen (eds), The Negotiation of Values in the Creative Industries: Fairs, Festivals and Competitive Events, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Moeran, Brian & Jesper Strandgaard Pedersen (2011): “Introduction”, Brian Moeran& Jesper Strandgaard Pedersen (eds). The Negotiation of Values in the Creative Industries: Fairs, Festivals and Competitive Events, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Oliver, Christine (1991): “Strategic Responses to Institutional Processes”. Academy of Management Review, 16, 145–179.
  • Ooi, Can-Seng & Jesper Strandgaard Pedersen (2010): “City Branding and Film Festivals: Re-evaluting Stakeholder’s Relations”, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 6, 316–332. [Read this article]
  • Politiken Weekly (2002): “De står bag festivalen Copenhagen International Film”, [They are behind the festival Copenhagen International Film]. Politiken Weekly, 18 December 2002, 21.
  • Rao, Hayagreeva, Calvin Morrill & Mayer N. Zald (2000): “Power Plays: Social Movements, Collective Action, and New Organizational Forms”. Research in Organizational Behavior, 22, 237–281. [Read this article]
  • Ritzau (2003a): “ÅbningafDanmarksførsteinternationalefilmfestival”, [Opening of Denmark’s first international film festival], Ritzaus Bureau, 13 August 2003.Ritzau (2003b): “Biografernesigernejtil at flyttefilmfestival”, [The cinemas rejects moving film festival], Ritzau Bureau, 18 August 2003.
  • Ritzau (2004): “Nyprogramchef for filmfestivalen i København”, [New programme director for the film festival of Copenhagen],Ritzau Bureau, 23 November 2004.
  • Ritzau (2005): “Copenhagen International Film Festival 100 pct. Europæisk”, [Copenhagen International Film Festivals 100 pct. European], Ritzau Bureau,25 May 2005.
  • Rüling, Charles C. & Jesper Strandgaard Pedersen (2010): “Film Festival Research From an Organizational Studies Perspective”,Scandinavian Journal of Management, 26:3, 318–323. [Read this article]
  • Scott, W. Richard (1995, 2001, 2008): Institutions and Organizations [1st, 2nd, 3rd Ed.], London: Sage Publications.
  • Scott, W. Richard, Martin Ruef, Peter J. Mendel & Carol A. Caronna (2000): Institutional Change and Health Care Organizations. from Professional Dominance to Managed Care, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Seo, Myeong-Gu and Creed, W. E. Douglas (2002): “Institutional Contradictions, Praxis, and Institutional Change: A Dialectical Perspective”, Academy of Management Review, 27:2, 222–247.
  • Solgaard, Michael (2006): “Ny sponsorstrategi giver filmfestival flere penge” [New sponsor strategy provides film festival with more money]. Markedsføring, 5 September 2006.
  • Straarup, Birgit (2003a): “Sponsorsvigt: Filmfestival sænker ambitionerne”, [Sponsor breakdown: Film festival lowers its ambitions]. Berlingske Tidende, 4 August 2003, 1.
  • Straarup, Birgit (2003b): “Festival skal flytte tidspunkt”, [Festivals moves its dates]. Berlingske Tidende, 5 August 2003, 2.
  • Strandgaard Pedersen, Jesper & Frank Dobbin (1997): “The Social Invention of Collective Actors: One the Rise of the Organization”, American Behavioral Scientist, 40, 431–443. [Read this article]
  • Strandgaard Pedersen, Jesper & Frank Dobbin(2006): “In Search of Identity and Legitimation – Bridging Organizational Culture and Neoinstitutionalism”, American Behavioral Scientist, 49, 897–907. [Read this article]
  • Strandgaard Pedersen, Jesper, Silviya Svejenova & Candace Jones (2006): “Editorial to Special Issue: Transforming Creative Industries: Strategies of and Structures Around Creative Entrepreneurs”. Creativity and Innovation Management, 15:3, 221–223. [Read this article]
  • Strang, David & John W. Meyer (1994): “Institutional Conditions for Diffusion”, W. Richard Scott and John W. Meyer (eds), Institutional Environments and Organization: Structural Complexity and Individualism: 100-112. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Suchman, Mark C. (1995): “Managing Legitimacy: Strategic and Institutional Approaches”, Academy of Management Review, 20, 571–610.
  • Svejenova, Silviya, Carmelo Mazza & Marcel Planellas (2007): “Cooking up change in haute cuisine: Ferran Adrià as an institutional entrepreneur”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 28, 539–561. [Read this article]
  • Thielst, Gro H. (2007): “Omdiskuteret festival sluger Buster”, [Debated festival swallows Buster]. Børsen 16 March 2007, 44.
  • Tolbert, Pamela S. & Lynne G. Zucker (1983): “Institutional Sources of Change in the Formal Structure of Organizations: The Diffusion of Civil Service Reform, 1880-1935”, Administrative Science Quarterly, 28, 22–39. [Read this article]
  • Turan, Kenneth. (2002): Sundance to Sarajevo – Film Festivals and the World they Made, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.
  • Ventresca, Mark C. & John W. Mohr (2002): “Archival Methods in Organization studies”. Baum, J.A.C. (ed.). The Blackwell Companion to Organizations: London: Blackwell Publishing, 805–828.
  • Westphal, James, RanjayGulati& Steven S. Shortell, (1997): “Customization or Conformity? An Institutional and Network Perspective on the Content and Consequences of TQM Adoption”, Administrative Science Quarterly, 42: 366–394. [Read this article]
  • Zucker, Lynne. G. (1983): “Organizations as Institutions”, Research in the Sociology of Organizations, vol. 2, 1–47, (ed.) Samuel. B. Bacharach. Greenwich, Connecticut: JAI Press.
  • Volume 3, Theme:: Theme: Creativity Unbound – Policies, Government and the Creative Industries, Article 12, 2011

    Jesper Strandgaard Pedersen, Carmelo Mazza
    International Film Festivals: For the Benefit of Whom?
    Note: the following are taken directly from CrossRef
    No citations available at the moment

    Export in BibTex, RIS or text